10th CBSE Resources & Development - Short Answer Questions

Q1. Distinguish between potential resource and stock with the help of examples.

Ans. Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised are termed as potential resource. They are either not easily accessible or not properly developed for present use but have  the  potential  to  fulfil  our  needs  whenever  we  require  them  with  development of technology and infrastructure. For example, the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for development of wind and solar energy, but they have not been significantly developed yet. Similarly, the hot springs of Himalayan region have potential for development  of geothermal energy but their development is lacking. Mineral deposits lie buried in mountains and oceans but their exploitation is    lacking.

Stocks, on the other hand, are materials in the environment which have the capacity to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these. For example, water is a compound of two inflammable gases, hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But the required technical knowhow to use these abundant gases for this purpose is not available at present. Similarly, by development of desalinisation project we can make ocean water usuable for drinking purpose. But we do not have the proper expertise and funds to use them, but our future generations may be able to do so with advancement of science and  technology.

Q2. What does the term ‘sustainable economic development’ mean? How can we eradicate irrational consumption and over-utilisation of  resources?

Ans. Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment’ and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.We can eradicate irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources through conservation of resources. Irrational consumption and over-exploitation of resources lead to many socio- economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems and to preserve resources for our future generation as well, proper management and conservation of resources is  essential.

Q3. List the problems caused due to indiscriminate use of resources by human beings.

Ans. Indiscriminate use of resources by human beings has led to economic, social and ecological problems. The major problems that have arisen due to over-exploitation, irrational consumption and indiscriminate use of resources are: 

  • Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of a few selfish individuals.
  • Accumulation of resources in a few hands, which in turn, has led to social segregation into rich and poor. The society is divided into two segments, i.e., have and have-nots.
  • Indiscriminate and uncontrolled exploitation of resources without consideration for the future have led to grave ecological problems like global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land   degradation.

Q4. Why does the pattern of net sown area vary from one state to another?

Ans. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 percent of  the total area in Punjab and Haryana. Geographical conditions like climate and soil here, are favourable for cultivation. Further, due to agricultural advancement through Green Revolution, more areas have been brought under cultivation. On the other hand, less than 10 percent of the total area is net sown area in Manipur, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Topographical constraints, unfavourable climate as well as socio-economic reasons account for the low proportion of net sown areas in these states.

On account of the vast expanse of India, its relief, climate, soil and socio-economic set-up vary from region to region accounting for the variation in the pattern of net sown area from one state to another.

Q5. Analyse the four main factors which help in the formation of soil.

Ans. Relief, nature of parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life, especially decomposers, and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Weathering of the parent rocks due to climatic factors like change of temperature, wind and frost action and rainfall and natural forces like action of running water, wind, glaciers etc., lead to disintegration of rocks. This leads to the formation of soil. The four most important factors of soil formation are  thus :

  • Relief determines the nature of weathering and erosion.
  • Climate determines the rate and factor of denudation of the rocks and influences weathering and erosion.
  • Nature of the parent rock determines the colour, texture and mineral content of the soil.
  • Time determines maturity of the soil, usually it takes millions of years to form soil upto few cms in  depth.

Q6. Distinguish between renewable and  non-renewable resources.          


Q7. Distinguish between Khadar and Bangar. Name any two states where alluvial soils are found.


Q8. What is resource planning? Give three phases of resource planning.

Ans. Resource planning is proper and judicious planning of resources. Three processes are involved. Resources are put to use according to abailability and needs for development of the   Economy.

The three processes are   :-

  • Identification and inventory of resources across various regions of the country. It involves surveying, mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
  • Evolving a planning structure, endowed with appropriate technological skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
  • Synchroning the resource development with overall national development plans.

Q9. Differentiate between stock and reserves.      


Q10. Explain what is meant by national resources and individual resources? 

Ans. National Resources :- All resource belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good. All the minerals, water, forest, wildlife, land without the political boundary and occanic area up to 12 Nautical miles from  the coast  are  National Resources.

Individual Resources :- The resources that are owned by individuals - like farmering own farms, residential plots, plantation, and all household goods, etc.

Q11. Explain the resources on the basis of origin and exhaustibility.       

Ans.  Resources on the basis of origin   :-

Biotic :- Those resources which are available in biosphere and have life such as human beings flora and fauna   etc.

Abiotic :- All those things which are non-living are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks,  soils  and minerals

Resources on the Basis of Exhaustibility   :-

Renewable resources :- The resource which can be renewed are Renewable resources. For Example water, forest wind   etc

Non-renewable resources :- These resources occur over a very long time and get exhausted minerals and fossil fuels are examples of these resources.

Q12. What is soil erosion? Write two human activities that lead to soil erosion. [2010 (T-1)] Ans. The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.

Two human factors leading to soil erosion are    :

  • Deforestation :- Due to heavy deforestation, soil erosion is increasing.
  • Overgrazing :- In many regions people still practise grazing of cattle, goats and sheap. Gradually this leads to soil   erosion.

Q13. Explain any three steps that can be taken to solve the problem of land degradation?


  • Contour ploughing : Ploughing along the contour lines can decelevate the flow of water down  the slopes.
  • Terrace cultivation : Steps can be cut out on the slopes, making terraces. Terrace cultivation  restricts erosion.
  • Strip cropping : Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind reducing its effect

Q14. Explain the role of humans in resource development.

Ans. i). Human beings interact with nature through technology, and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. If human beings are developed they can make the region developed with  technology, for  example, Japan.
ii). Human beings transfer materials available in our environment into resource, and use them. There are regions where natural resources are in abundance but regions not developed for example Africa. Thi is due to poor development of human beings

Q15. Explain the importance of conservation of resources.

Ans. Conservation of resources is necessary because of following reasons :

  • Resources are vital for any developmental activity but irrational consumption and over- utilisation of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various level is important.
  • If resources are not conserved at this point of time, then our future generations will be left with no resources at all. So it is very important to think for conservation of resources.

Q16. Why is it important to raise the land area under forests? 

Ans. It is very important to raise area under forest because forests are essential for maintenance of the Ecological balance. The livelihood of millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it. Forest also provides a number of goods that are required for industry and medicines etc. Forest also helps in soil conservation and rainfall.

Q17. Describe any three main characteristics of arid soil of India. 

Ans.  There characteristics of Arid soils in India are:

  • They range from red to brown in colour
  • They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature
  • In some areas salt content is higher and common salt is obtained by evaporation of water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humans and moisture.

Q18. Highlight any three problems associated with the indiscriminate use of resources by the human beings.   

Ans. Indiscriminate use of resources creates following problems :–

  • Global ecological crises such as global warming.
  • It has also led to depletion of the ozone layer.
  • It has also caused environmental pollution and land degradation.
  • The resultant threat to ecology and environment has put the future of our planet in danger. Natural disasters have become very frequent. Many species of flora and fauna  have already  become extinct.

Q19. “Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.” Justify the statement.

Ans.  As environment belongs to the Earth its impact felt by the whole planet. For example if carbon dioxide is being released by some rich countries global warming is affecting the lives of all the people on the planet. Air pollution moves alongwith air and cannot be restricted to any place or country. Ozone layer depletion has serious consequences for people all over the world.

Q20. Describe any three types of soil available in India.  

Ans.  Three important soils of India are:

  1. Alluvial Soils :- It is most important and widespread soil of India. The entire northern plain is made of this soil. Alluvial have been deposited by three important Himalayan rivers — Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus. These soils consist of various proportions of sand, silt, and day. These are of two types : Khadar and Bangar. They contain potash, phosphoric acid and limestone.
  2. Black Soil :- These soils are black in colour and are also known as Regur or cotton soils. This type of soil is found in Deccan plateau region and is made up of lava flows. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and  lime.
  3. Laterite Soil :- Laterite soil develops in areas of high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching. Humus content of soil is very low. These are  found in Karanataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly  areas  of Orissa  and Assam.

Q21. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas?


  • Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This   is contour ploughing.
  • Steps can be cut out on the slopes maping terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion.
  • Strip cropping is a very effective method of soil conservation or controlling soil erosion. Large fields are divided into strips and strips of grass are left to grow between the crops.

Q22. Mention any three characteristics of black soil.


  • The black soils are made of clayey material and are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
  • They are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. But black soils are poor in phosphoric    contents.
  • Black soil develop deep cracks during summer which helps in proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilted just after the first shower.

Q22. “India’s vast and diverse size is the most important resource.” Support the statement.

Ans. India has land under a variety of relief features such as plains, plateaus, mountains and islands. About 43 per cent of land areas is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. Mountains account for 30 per cent of the total surface area of the country and ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects. About 27 per cent    of the area is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and   forests.

Q23. Suggest any three measures of   soil conservation.

Ans.     The three measures of soil conservation are —

  • Contour ploughing—ploughing along the contour lines can lead to soil conservation.
  • Terrace cultivation—steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation leads  to  soil conservation.
  • Creating shelter belts — planting of trees to create shelter. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts.