Soil is most important abiotic component of atmosphere that provide favourable condition to support life on earth. Soil contain many worms and micro-organisms that maintain the fertility of soil.
Formation of soil
Effect of heat, temperature, force of flowing water and wind and roots of plants causes the breaking down of rocks into smaller particles. This is known as weathering. After thousands of year tiny particles of rocks changed into loose material called soil.
The process of carrying away top fertile soil from one place to another by natural agents like wind and water is known as soil erosion. Some human activities like deforestation and overgrazing also makes the land barren which leads to soil erosion.
The process of protecting top layer of soil from natural agents as well as human activities is known as soil conservation. Methods of soil conservation are-
Afforestation, Cover crops, Terrace farming, Fence, Shelter belts and Embankments